The Black Church (Die Schwarze Kirche in German) is the parish church of the Evangelical Lutheran community in Brașov, located in the centre of Brașov city. The gothic building was partially destroyed in the fire that followed the temporary invasion of the Turks in 1689, when its walls blackened and became known under its current name. The popular name after the fire, the “Black Church”, was officially accepted in the XIXth century.
The Black Church is one of the most representative monuments of Gothic architecture in Romania, dating from the XIV-XVth centuries. With a length of over 89 meters, it is considered to be the largest church in Romania. Owing to its size, when it was finalized, it received the title of the Largest Church between Vienna and Constantinople.
The Council Square used to be, during the Middle Ages, the place where, in Brașov, markets were held, not only by Hungarian and Saxons of Transylvania, but also by merchants from Romania. The entrance to the square was done through Vămii street (current Mureșenilor), and goods were cleared along the street.
The Council House in the centre of the square was the place where each merchant had to place his goods and the civil servants of the city made sure that these were respected.
Among the buildings in the square we should mention the Council House, the Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, the Merchants’ House, the Filstich-Plecke House, Mureșenilor House, the Museum of Urban Civilization Brașov. The Black Church is located near the square.
The Council Square is probably the best well-known and most visited place in Brașov, where various artistic and cultural events, outdoor concerts, such as the Golden Stag Festival, etc. are organized.
Located in the south-west corner of Brașov Fortress, the Weavers’ Bastion stretches on a 1.616 sqm area. Its walls have a thickness between 4 m at the base and 1 m at the fourth level of the construction. Built by the weavers’ guild on four levels, with embrasures, loopholes for pouring tar, and two watch towers, the bastion has a unique architecture unique in south-east Europe. Spared from the great fire of 1689, it has preserved its original form. The first construction works took place between 1421 and 1436, with the construction of the first two levels. It was first documented in 1522. Between 1570 and 1573, the third level was built, and between 1750 and 1910, major restauration works were carried out, following the partial collapse of the bastion in 1701. In 1908, after serving as warehouse for a long time, the bastion acquired the neighbouring building (the guild’s headquarters) and it has been increasingly housing parties and, especially, opera concerts, due to the exceptional acoustic qualities it offers. In 1950, inside the bastion walls was set up the Burzenland Museum, where the scale model of the old fortress of Brașov and Șchei is exhibited, as it looked at the end of the XVIIth century, as well as weapons and items made by the weavers’ guild-
Dating as establishment from 1292, St. Nicholas Church dominates, through its impressive size, Șcheii Brașovului. The church was built in stone, starting with the year 1495, by the locals, with the help of Neagoe Basarab, Prince of Wallachia.
The Romanian village here, centred around the place of worship, seems to have been a powerful Orthodox centre, since, in 1399, Pope Boniface IX demanded in a Papal bull the conversion of the “schismatics” of Corona. The Orthodox church and the Romanian school, built near it, have been an important spiritual and cultural centre for Romanians in the Burzenland, their actions influencing Romanians in the entire Romanian space, especially after the arrival of Deacon Coresi, who began printing here religious books in Romanian. Numerous rulers and their families have made donations to the church in Șchei. Even Elizabeth, Empress of Russia, sent expensive gifts consisting of money, holy priestly and hierarchical items, ritualistic objects of precious metal. The church was initially built in the Gothic style, then suffered various transformations in the Baroque style. In the church cemetery, important personalities from national and local history are buried, such as Nicolae Titulescu, doctor Aurel Popovici, priest Vasile Saftu, doctor Ioan Meșotă.
The Bran Castle (Törzburg in German, Törcsvár in Hungarian) is a historic and architectural monument situated in the Rucăr-Bran Pass, 30 kilometres from Brașov. The history of Bran Castle begins over 600 hundred years ago, when King Louis I of Hungary (1342-1382), on November 17, 1377, in Zvolen, affirms to the Saxons of Transylvania in the Brașov Seat (totaque communitas Saxonum sedis Brassouiensis) the right to build, according to the promise, at their own expense and with their craftsmen, a new stone fortress at Bran.
In 1395, Sigismund of Luxembourg, King of Germany and King of Hungary, used the Bran Castle as a strategic base for an incursion in Wallachia, after which he removed Vlad the Usurper, rival of Mircea the Elder, his vassal.
In 1407, Sigismund granted Mircea the Elder the rule of the Bran Castles (without the related territory) and Bologa. Bran remains under the authority of Wallachia until 1419.
In 1427, the Bran Castle passed from the property of the Seat of Brașov to the Hungarian Crown, which funded the reinforcement and expansion works. In 1498, the Bran fortress was leased by the Kingdom of Hungary to the Seat of Brașov.
In 1920, the City Council of Brașov donated the castle to Queen Marie of Romania, in gratitude for her contribution to the Great Union. At the death of the Queen, in 1938, the castle was inherited by her favourite daughter, Princess Ileana, married to a member of the former royal Habsburg family. After 1948, the Bran Castle was nationalized and became the property of the Romanian state. The castle was opened to public visits beginning with 1956, as a museum for history and medieval art. In 1987, restoration works began, which were broadly completed in 1993. The castle reopens its gates as a museum and re-enters the tourist circuit.